Beside to the effect of silicon and aluminum in suppressing the cementite formation, they have stabilized the ferrite formation. By utilizing this fact, it is suggested to obtain various combinations of micro-phases which bear a great enhancement to the medium carbon steel. The effect of silicon and aluminum has been studied on the medium carbon steel isothermal transformed by different two slow continuous cooling regimes.

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Friction stir processing (FSP) is a surface treatment technology that can eliminate casting defects locally by refining microstructures, thereby improving the mechanical properties of material.

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