Incremental forging processes like radial forging become more and more crucial in industry due to their outstanding economic performance, their high flexibility and their advantageous compressive stress states. However, nowadays a basic method to analyze forging processes, FEM simulation is still a very time consuming procedure and needs complex models to implement incremental processes. Especially long term studies with focus on tool temperature development during several hours of production cannot be performed with classical FEM models for radial forging. The main problem in modelling is the high operating frequency of the forging devices, which leads to small necessary time steps and, therefore, to inacceptable calculation time due to numerous simulations that have to be run to complete a cogging process sequence. Steady state in die temperature is often only reached after processing several workpieces. Hence, it is necessary to use a simplified FE-model of the forging process to predict the steady state temperature of the forging dies. In the present work a simplified FE-model is established to investigate the steady state temperature of the dies. This approach is verified by metallographic studies proving its accuracy.

High-manganese steels are characterized by high ductility, strength and work hardening resulting from the formation of strain induced martensite (TRIP-effect) or twins (TWIP-effect). A third type is shear band induced plasticity (SIP) in Triplex steels. The Mn-content ranges from 15 to 30 %. Mn and additions of C, Si and Al exert a strong influence on the microstructure and the deformation mechanism and can accordingly affect both strength and ductility. The max. carbon content can be around 1.2 %. The main interest is currently concentrating on TWIP steels. Production of these grades via the conventional steelmaking routes can raise problems and, therefore, modifications and/or alternative production methods have to be applied. With respect to their extreme strength levels, high-Mn steels exhibit an extraordinary forming potential. Welding involves some specific challenges. The possible occurrence of delayed fracture is discussed. High-Mn steels have to compete with other lower alloy steels and special stainless grades with the same objective targets. Referring to this, the laboratory and industrial trials are to be continued in order to fully exploit the considerable market potential of the new steels.

A process for electroless deposition of NiP films on a transparent non-conductive soda lime glass is investigated. The process requires at least two repetitive cycles of etching and activation. The annealing process of the NiP films at 400 and 600˚C has been studied and the optimal heat treatment condition has been established. Different Ni bath with different pH has been employed to assess the NiP deposition. Characterization of the deposits by optical and scanning electron microscopy has provided information on the nature of crystallites and on the surface topography.

JSW Steel Limited is a 10.0 Mtpa integrated steel plant and 2 corex & 4 blast furnace forms the main iron making units. Sinter and pellet are the main iron bearing feed to iron making units. JSW Steel Limited operates with a 4.2x2 Mtpa pellet plant and the production rate of each pellet plant is ~500t/hr. Pellet plant utilizes 100% beneficiation plant (BP) product for pellet making. Beneficiation plant product size (pellet grade fines) is coarser (-45micron - 40 to 45%) in nature. Optimum particle size of the raw material is required to get the desired properties of the pellets. BP plant has set up two number of ball mill to get the optimum particle size for pellet making. Pelletisation studies were carried out in laboratory by varying the ball mill discharge size from 52 to 68% -45micron size to optimize the pellet grade fines size to achieve desired physical and metallurgical properties of the fired pellets. The desired physical and metallurgical properties of the pellets were obtained with the iron ore fineness 64% -45micron size due to presence of well balanced mineralogical phases.

Failure assessment was made on cylindrical pressure vessels containing longitudinal weld misalignment performing finite element analysis (FEA) utilizing the Ansys software package. A 20° section of the cylindrical shell wall was modeled utilizing the plane strain element (plane 182) with the longitudinal weld in the centre of section. The weld misalignment was introduced by shifting the position of the cylindrical section on one side of the weld relative to the other section. Failure pressure estimates from FEA based on the global plastic deformation are found to be in good agreement with existing test results on vessels made of Afnor 15CDV6 steel and maraging steels.

news in steel

LKAB invests in pilot plants for phosphorus and rare earth metals

"We are investing 45 million kronor in pilot plants as part of a pre feasibility study to define a process that enables recycling of mine waste through innovative processing, producing critical raw materials. Lab tests conducted during the year confirmed that we can produce more phosphorus and rare earth metals than estimated," says President and Group CEO, Jan Moström.

Introducing Duroxite™ 200 overlay plate for preventing severe sliding wear

Duroxite™ 200 saves money and improves productivity in a wide range of applications through higher output and less maintenance.

SMS group supplies high-performance Compact Cold Mill to Marcegaglia

Marcegaglia Ravenna S.p.A. has contracted SMS group for the complete supply of a two-stand reversing cold mill of CCM® (Compact Cold Mill) design. Marcegaglia's head-quarters is located in Gazoldo degli Ippoliti, in the Mantua province in North Italy.

VCC® technology comes to Colombia

Ternium del Atlántico SAS, has placed an order with SMS group for the supply and installation of the VCC® technology (Vertical Compact Coiler) for its bar mill in Palmar de Varela, Barranquilla, Colombia.